The development of the concept of academic entrepreneurship: The case of the United States
The role of the university has always been as a provider of knowledge, a source of new ideas, and a producer of an educated workforce. But as the needs of the globalized world have changed, universities have had to adapt to a new, more uncertain reality. Although there are several ways to accomplish this goal, one of the most promising is the idea of academic entrepreneurship: universities which are embedding creative processes into their everyday work and bringing ideas to market. As part of regional development plans, universities are also developing partnerships with government and business to create innovative and competitive social and economic environments; others have even served as business incubators themselves to promote and support this regional development. In this paper, we explore the theoretical concept of academic and university entrepreneurship, the role of the state in support of this concept, and an in-depth look at the best practices and lessons learned from decades of entrepreneurship in the United States.