On non-democratic nature of political leadership
Leadership is a very special social relation not only of power but of mutual needs, aspirations, values, etc. Leadership strengthens managers and politicians in their roles. Organizational and political leadership is treated as effectively strengthening the power of managers and politicians. This is the positive side of leadership. On the other hand, organizational and political leadership is in crisis. Many leaders failed. Real leaders are more and more rare. The author argues that leadership — either organizational or political — is non-democratic in its essence. So-called democratic leaders are such especially because their followers blindly identify distinctive leadership roles and qualities. Leaders’ followers are non-criticized. More leadership means more dependency and less autonomy. Most distinguished political leaders (for example: Charles de Gaulle, Józef Piłsudski, Jawaharlal Nehru) and most distinguished managers (for example: Henry Ford, John Rockefeller, William Gates) are the worst possible symbols of democracy.